The Legendary “Lacquer”

Some of Montblanc products are made up of a mysterious material for coating. Many of my colleagues are curious about it. Once again, wikipeida gives the answer. Actually, it cames from our home land: China.

lacquer

A round red-lacquer-ware box depicting carved scenes of children playing, from the reign of the Qianlong Emperor (1735-1796), Qing Dynasty of China.

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A round red-lacquer-ware box depicting carved scenes of children playing, from the reign of the Qianlong Emperor (17351796), Qing Dynasty of China.

In a general sense, lacquer is a clear or coloured coating, that dries by solvent evaporation and often a curing process as well that produces a hard, durable finish, in any sheen level from ultra matte to high gloss and that can be further polished as required. In a narrower sense, lacquer consists of a resin dissolved in a fast-drying solvent which is a mixture of naphtha, xylene, toluene, and ketones, including acetone. The word lacquer comes from the lac insect (Laccifer lacca, formerly Coccus lacca), whose secretions have been historically used to make lacquer and shellac. In America today the word lacquer refers to nitrocellulose, and little else; most other coatings are known as varnish. In the UK however, the general rule is "if you spray it, it’s lacquer – if you brush it, it’s varnish". All factory finished furniture these days is therefore lacquer (pigmented, tinted or clear). Another ancient form of lacquerwork is done by heating shellac and adding powder of natural dyes. On hardening the lac is touched to a rotating wood on a lathe. The friction between the lathe and the wood creates heat which causes the shellac to melt and stick to the surface. This technique is today practised in India, Pakistan and Afghanistan. The artisan create many beautiful colors and patterns using simple machine or hand operated lathes.

Urushiol-based lacquers

The earliest known lacquers were either made in China or Japan, with earliest discovery dating back to 7000 B.C.[1] These lacquers, made from the resin of the tree Rhus verniciflua, produce very hard, durable finishes that are both beautiful, and very resistant to damage by water, acid, alkali or abrasion. They do not, however, stand up well to ultraviolet light. The active ingredient of the resin is urushiol, a mixture of various phenols suspended in water, plus a few proteins.

Wooden lacquer-finished whistles made in Channapatna, Karnataka, India

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Wooden lacquer-finished whistles made in Channapatna, Karnataka, India

Urushiol-based lacquers differ from most other lacquers in that they are slow-drying, water based, and set by oxidation and polymerisation, rather than by evaporation alone. In order for it to set properly it requires humidity and warm temperature. The phenols oxidize and polymerize under the action of an enzyme laccase, yielding a substrate that, upon proper evaporation of its water content, is hard and fairly resistant to mechanical stress. Lacquer skills became very highly developed in India and Asia, and many highly decorated pieces were produced. The process of lacquer application in India is different from China and Japan. There are two types of lacquer: one is obtained from the Rhus tree and the other from an insect. In India the insect lac was first used from which India first extracted a red dye, later what was left of the insect was a grease that was used for lacquering objects. Insect lac was introduced to India from Persia (Iran). The fresh resin from the Rhus trees causes urushiol-induced contact dermatitis and great care is required in its use. The Chinese treated the allergic reaction with shell-fish.

The contemporary theory held that from China, knowledge of lacquer technology was introduced to Korea, and from there to Japan. It was believed that Japan had also been using lacquer from ancient times, but the systematic process of application was developed by the Chinese. With the discovery of lacquer ware in Japan dating back to Jōmon period, conflicting theories claim that technology may have been independently developed in Japan or imported from Japan to China. Trade of lacquer objects traveled through various routes to the Middle East. Known applications of lacquer in China included coffins, plates, music instruments and furniture. Lacquer mixed with powdered cinnabar is used to produce the traditional red lacquerware from China.

Lacquer mixed with water and turpentine, ready for applying to surface.

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Lacquer mixed with water and turpentine, ready for applying to surface.

The trees must be at least 10 years old before cutting to bleed the resin. It sets by a process called "aqua-polymerization", absorbing oxygen to set; placing in a humid environment (called "furo" or "muro" in Japanese, means "a bath" or "a room") allows it to absorb more oxygen from the evaporation of the water.

Lacquer yielding trees in Thailand, Vietnam, Burma and Taiwan, called Thitsi, are slightly different; they do not contain urushiol, but similar substances called "laccol" or "thitsiol". The end result is similar but softer than the Chinese or Japanese lacquer. Unlike Japanese and Chinese Rhus verniciflua resin, Burmese lacquer does not cause allergic reactions; it sets slower, and is painted by craftsmen’s hands without using brushes.

Raw lacquer can be "coloured" by the addition of small amounts of iron oxides, giving red or black depending on the oxide. There is some evidence that its use is even older than 8,000 years from archeological digs in China. Later, pigments were added to make colours. It is used not only as a finish, but mixed with ground fired and unfired clays applied to a mould with layers of hemp cloth, it can produce objects without need for another core like wood. The process is called "kanshitsu" in Japan. Advanced decorative techniques using additional materials such as gold and silver powders and flakes ("makie") were refined to very high standards in Japan also after having been introduced from China. In the lacquering of the Chinese musical instrument, the guqin, the lacquer is mixed with deer horn powder (or ceramic powder) to give it more strength so it can stand up to the fingering.

A Chinese lacquer coffin decorated with birds and dragons, from the State of Chu, 4th century BC.

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A Chinese lacquer coffin decorated with birds and dragons, from the State of Chu, 4th century BC.

There are more than four forms of urushiol which is written as thus:

Urushiol.png R = (CH2)14CH3 or
R = (CH2)7CH=CH(CH2)5CH3 or
R = (CH2)7CH=CHCH2CH=CH(CH2)2CH3 or
R = (CH2)7CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH=CHCH3 or
R = (CH2)7CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH=CH2 and others.

Nitrocellulose lacquers

Ming Dynasty Chinese lacquerware container, dated 16th century.

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Ming Dynasty Chinese lacquerware container, dated 16th century.

Quick-drying solvent-based lacquers that contain nitrocellulose, a resin obtained from the nitration of cotton and other cellulostic materials, were developed in the early 1920s, and extensively used in the automobile industry for 30 years. Prior to their introduction, mass produced automotive finishes were limited in colour, with Japan Black being the fastest drying and thus most popular. General Motors Oakland automobile brand automobile was the first (1923) to introduce one of the new fast drying nitrocelluous lacquers, a bright blue, produced by DuPont under their Duco tradename.

These lacquers are also used on wooden products, furniture primarily, and on musical instruments and other objects. The nitrocellulose and other resins and plasticizers are dissolved in the solvent, and each coat of lacquer dissolves some of the previous coat. These lacquers were a huge improvement over earlier automobile and furniture finishes, both in ease of application, and in colour retention. The preferred method of applying quick-drying lacquers is by spraying, and the development of nitrocellulose lacquers led to the first extensive use of spray guns. Nitrocellulose lacquers produce a very hard yet flexible, durable finish that can be polished to a high sheen. Drawbacks of these lacquers include the hazardous nature of the solvent, which is flammable, volatile and toxic; and the handling hazards of nitrocellulose in the lacquer manufacturing process. Lacquer grade or soluble nitrocellulose is closely related to the more highly nitrated form which is used to make explosives.

Acrylic lacquers

Lacquers using acrylic resin, a synthetic polymer, were developed in the 1950s. Acrylic resin is colourless, transparent thermoplastic, obtained by the polymerization of derivatives of acrylic acid. Acrylic is also used in enamels, which have the advantage of not needing to be buffed to obtain a shine. Enamels, however, are slow drying. The advantage of acrylic lacquers, which was recognized by General Motors, is an exceptionally fast drying time. The use of lacquers in automobile finishes was discontinued when tougher, more durable, weather and chemical resistant two-component polyurethane coatings were developed. The system usually consists of a primer, colour coat and clear topcoat, commonly known as clear coat finishes. It is extensively used for wooden finishing

Water-based lacquers

Due to health risks and environmental considerations involved in the use of solvent-based lacquers, much work has gone in to the development of water-based lacquers. Such lacquers are considerably less toxic and more environmentally friendly, and in many cases, produce acceptable results. More and more water-based coloured lacquers are replacing solvent-based clear and coloured lacquers in underhood and interior applications in the automobile and other similar industrial applications. Water based lacquers are used extensively in wood furniture finishing as well.

Japanning

As Asian and Indian lacquer work became popular in England, France, the Netherlands, and Spain in the 17th century the Europeans developed imitations that were effectively a different technique of lacquering. The European technique, which is used on furniture and other objects, uses varnishes that have a resin base similar to shellac. The technique, which became known as japanning, involves applying several coats of varnish which are each heat-dried and polished. In the 18th century this type of lacquering gained a large popular following. In the 19th and 20th centuries this lacquering technique evolved into the handicraft of decoupage.

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About thomaszhu

"In the designs of Providence. There are no mere coincidences."
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1 则回应给 The Legendary “Lacquer”

  1. free说道:

    这个写的真是飚汉啊,强啊:)

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